I. Change the sentences, using the patterns

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1. We must prevent him from leaving.

The cold wet weather prevented the Lowood girls from go­ing for long walks.

His rheumatism often prevented Salvatore from doing anything at all.

You'd better keep yourself from taking extreme measures.

Various reasons kept Bill from joining the expedition.

Eliza tried to keep her little child from crying.

2. You can't act without feeling.

Jolyon started for the Club without having made up his mind.

Frank now felt, without knowing why, that the offer was probably good.

Rose sat there for a long time without unfastening her coat.

You can't teach one how to use speech patterns without giving a good supply of various examples.

They can't have good crops without cultivating soil.

3. His clothes made him hard to recognize.

Lots of mistakes made his speech difficult to follow.

There was something in Bosinney's appearance that made him easy to recognize.

Her shallow-mindedness makes her dull to speak to.

They found it impossible to supply the factory with raw cot­ton.

We found it hard to make up our minds about choosing a place for rest.

4. These letters are hardly worth the paper they are written on.

The problem is hardly worth the trouble taken. The picture is of little value, it is hardly worth the money paid.

The experiment is hardly worth the time you've spent on it. The incident is hardly worth all this excitement. The soil was hardly worth the toil.


I. Change the sentences, using the patterns:

Pattern 1: 1. The explorers could not reach the southern boundaries of the desert because of the scorching heat and lack of fresh water. 2. The day was foggy; the fish­ermen could not see the coast-line. 3. It's wet outdoors. Put on my raincoat, it'll save you for a while. 4. He couldn't take part in the conference because he was ill. 5. She could not make a good speech because of her poor knowledge of English.

Pattern 2: 1. Amy did not say a word and left the room. 2. You can hardly realize what an ocean-going ship is if you haven't been inside. 3. They will not come to see us if they are not invited. 4. He could listen to long verses in Lat­in, though he did not understand a word. 5. He would mark rhythm with his right foot, though he never realized what he was doing.

Pattern 3: 1. Owing to the smallness of our boat it was easy to navigate in such shallow waters. 2. It was impos­sible to move on because of the rainy season in the tropics. 3. We could hardly recognize the place after the hurricane. 4. It was easy to change our plans owing to his quick arrival. 5. I could not recognize your sister because of her new hairdo.

Pattern 4: 1. I don't think you are right taking so much trouble over the problem. 2. That sacrifice of his was almost useless. Just to think of all the efforts made! 3. What's the fare? I'm afraid it is more expensive than your luggage. 4. She had made a long way to come there, but the conference was of little value to her. 5. The manuscript turned out to be a variant of the original. I was sorry I wasted so much time translating it.

II. Complete the following sentences, using the patterns. Make nse of the words and phrases in brackets:

Pattern 1: 1. Various reasons ... (to do optional subjects). 2. Her illness ... (to qualify for this post). 3. My neighbour's silly remarks ... (to enjoy the performance). 4. His advice ... (to get into trouble). 5. The windy weather ... (to take us for a drive).

Pattern 2: 1. You can't leave Great Britain ... (to see the Lake District). 2. She will not take any medicine ... (to consult a doctor). 3. You shouldn't leave ... (to have a snack). 4. She can't speak about the news ... (to get excited). 5. You won't be able to pass your exam ... (to work hard).

Pattern 3: 1. Her manners ... (unpleasant to deal with). 2. Lack of rainfalls... (difficult to plough). 3. Likeness of their names ... (easy to remember). 4. I don't find it... (to bother him). 5. We find it... (to make use of tape-recording).

Pattern 4:1. The picture is of little value, it... (money). 2. The results of the expedition ... (efforts). 3. The trip is ... (trouble). 4. The decorations are ... (time). 5. The victory was ... (sacrifice). 6. The medicine is ... (money).

III. Translate the following sentences into English. Use the patterns:

Pattern 1: 1. Примите лекарство, оно предохранит вас от простуды. 2. Что-то помешало Тому сказать Бекки, что там в пещере он видел индейца Джо. 3. Что помешало вам вос­пользоваться этой возможностью? 4. Она рассказывала смеш­ные истории, чтобы мальчик не плакал. 5. Фрэнк понимал, что только быстрые действия спасут его от разорения.

Pattern 2: 1. Молли уехала из города, никому не сказав о своих подозрениях. 2. Герт спросил, какое право имеет Лэнни строить планы, не советуясь с ним. 3. Не глядя на него, Герт сказал: «Можешь идти». 4. Не говоря ни слова, Лэнни вышел.

Pattern 3: 1. Множество специальных терминов делают его доклад трудным для понимания. 2. Заботы и тревоги сдела­ли ее лицо трудноузнаваемым. 3. Яркие метафоры делали его примеры легкими для запоминания. 4. Все находят, что с ним легко иметь дело. 5. Я нахожу, что с вашим старшим братом приятно поговорить.

Pattern 4: 1. Едва ли эта марка стоит денег, которые вы заплатили за нее. 2. Дело не стоит хлопот. 3. Упаковка до­роже, чем товар. 4. Едва ли эта поездка стоит потраченного времени. 5. Джеймс Форсайт считал, что свежий воздух не стоит тех денег, которые платят за загородные дома.

IV. Respond to the following statements, using the patterns. (Make use of the conversational formulas given in the Reminder.):

A. 1. Alexander Popov was unable to perfect his invention because of the lack of money. 2. Little David was afraid of the Murdstones, he could not read his lesson well in their presence. 3. Lanny realized that Mabel might get into trou­ble. He wanted to save his sister. 4. You can't possibly start on a sea voyage if the weather report is unfavourable.

B. 1. You must see the Lake District with your own eyes to be able to appreciate its beauty. 2. My uncle dislikes Mary though he has never seen her. 3. Passengers should not be reminded to pay their fares. 4. I hope, you will trans­late all these sentences and never consult a dictionary.

C. 1. There was something strange about the Gadfly's manner of speaking. 2. Latin grammar is logical, that's why it is easy to understand. 3. Byron's verses are well-rhymed, you can learn them by heart quite easily. 4. If you know Swedish you'll find little difficulty in understanding Norwe­gian because these languages are of common origin.

Reminder: Just so. Quite so. I quite agree here. Natu­rally. Certainly. Sure. I think so. Looks like that. I disagree with you. You are wrong. You are mistaken. There's some­thing in what you say, but... . Certainly not. Impossible! It's unfair. It's unjust.

V. Think of short situations in which you can use these patterns.

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