The vowel sounds /α: / and




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The vowel sounds /α:/ and /۸ /.

  1. Listen to the sound / α: / on its own. Look at the mouth diagram to see how to make this long vowel sound.

The blade of the tongue is very low down in the mouth, it is retracted. The tip of the tongue is also retracted from the lower teeth. The back of the tongue is slightly raised towards the soft palate. The jaw is considerably lowered. The lips are neutral.


  1. Listen and repeat.

Carp, heart, cart, barn, march, clerk.


  1. Read these examples of the sound / α:/.

far

card

harm

class

fast

ask

bar

cart

halve

gasp

after

path

heart

star

half

plant

aunt

heart

march

starve

raft

task

bath

France

calm

start

clerk

dance

past

laugh




  1. ^ Listen to the sound / ۸/. Look at the mouth diagram to see how to make this short vowel sound.

The tongue is in the central part of the mouth. The back of the tongue is raised towards the roof of the mouth. The front of the tongue is raised to the back of the hard palate. The tip of the tongue is retracted from the front lower teeth. The lips are neutral.

  1. ^ Listen and repeat.

Cup, hut, cut, bun, much, cluck.


  1. Read these examples of the sound /۸ /.

shut

blood

flood

country

son

much

cut

ton

son

mother

luck

young

rough

courage

trouble

come

does

dove

duck

sun

must

cup

hut

couple

such




  1. ^ Listen to the sounds / and / α: / in contrast and repeat.

cup-carp bun-barn

hut-heart much-march

cut-cart cluck-clerk


  1. Read the contrasted sounds / α: / and / ۸ /. Transcribe the words.

luck - lark heart - hut

cud - card cart - cut

duck - dark barn - bun

lust - last march - much

bucks - barks

ІХ. Read the following sentences. Mind the right articulation of the sounds / α: / and / ۸ /.

      1. My mother’s brother’s my uncle; my uncle’s son’s my cousin.

      2. Your uncle took the umbrella upstairs.

      3. My puppy loves to run.

      4. You must go to lunch but come back for supper.

      5. The ugly duck is under the hut.

      6. Put some honey on the bun, Mother.

      7. Aunt Martha lives near Marble Arch, which isn’t far.


Х. Listen to the dialogue (Sound Right 11.1). Intone it. Learn and reproduce it, paying attention to the pronunciation of the sounds / α: / and / ۸ /.
ХІ. Learn the following graphical rules:

    • Vowel / α: / is represented in spelling by:

          1. The digraph “ar” (part)

          2. “a” followed by ”ss, st, sk, sp, ft, t, th, lf, lm” (after, past, ask, grasp, after, father, tomato, half, calm)

          3. “ance”, “anch” in words of French origin (France, glance, ranch)

          4. “and” when stressed (demand)

Rare Spellings: aunt, draught, laugh, clerk, sergeant, heart, hearth, bazaar, drama, aria, tomato, garage, moustache, vase



    • Vowel / ۸ / is represented in spelling by:

          1. The letter “u” in stressed closed syllables (uncle)

          2. “o” followed by “m, n, v, th” (come, son, love, mother)

          3. The digraph “ou” followed by “gh, bl(e), pl(e)” (tough, trouble, couple)

To memorise: “ou” + other consonants (country, courage, cousin, touch, young, southern)

Rare Spellings: blood, flood, worry, stove
ХІІ. Find Ukrainian equivalents to the proverbs and sayings.Learn them:

/ α: /

  1. He laughs best, who laughs last.

  2. After a storm comes a calm.

  3. Each dog barks in his own yard.

  4. Art is long, life is short.


/ ۸ /

  1. So many countries, so many customs.

  2. Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.

  3. Love me, love my dog.

  4. When two Sundays come together.

  5. A storm in a tea cup.

  6. A man is known by the company he keeps.

  7. As snug as a bug in a rug.

  8. As hungry as a hunter.


ХІІІ. Learn the following tongue twister:

/ ۸ /

Double bubble gum bubbles double.

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