The verb the verb is a part of speech that denotes action




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THE VERB

The verb is a part of speech that denotes action.

The grammar meanings of the Verb are expressed by 6 different Grammatical Categories. These categories are:

  1. Person (I Run :: She runs)

  2. Number (I am :: They are)

  3. Tense (work :: worked)

  4. Aspect (I work :: I’m working)

  5. Voice (tell :: is told)

  6. Mood (it is :: let it be)


These categories can be expressed in 2 ways:

  1. Syntactically (by means of affixes, inner flexion (change of the root vowel)

  2. Analytically ( auxiliary word and word order.)

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According to their function in a sentence Verbs can have 2 forms:

  1. finite (can be used as the predicate of a sentence) (He runs)

  2. non-finite or verbals (can’t be used as the predicate of a sentence) (He entered the room running)

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According to their morphological structure verbs are divided into 4 types:

  1. simple – verbs with 1 stem (read, live, hide, speak);

  2. derived – stem + flections (prefixes, suffixes, endings) (magnify, fertilize, captivate, undo)

  3. compound – stem + stem (daydream, browbeat);

  4. composite\ phrasal verbs - Verb + postposition used as one phrase with the unique meaning (sit down, go away, give up)

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The basic^ Verb Forms are




The Infinitive

Past Simple (Indefinite)

Participle II

Participle I

irregular verbs

to speak

spoke

spoken

speak + ing

regular verbs

to learn

learn + ed

learn + ed

learn + ing

mixed verbs

to show

show + ed

shown




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According to the syntactic function and their meaning verbs can be:

1) Notional (have a full lexical meaning; can be used without any additional words as a simple predicate) (to write, to read)

2) Auxiliary (have no lexical meaning of their own; used in analytical forms) (to do, to have, to be, shall, willl, would, should, may)

3) Link (partially lost their own lexical meaning and are used in the compound nominal predicate describing state of being)

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Verbs may be:

  1. transitive (verbs can take a direct object) (to take, to make, to give, to have)

  2. intransitive (verbs can’t take a direct object) (to stand, to sleep, to laugh, to think, to lie, to swim)

Some verbs have transitive primary meaning and intransitive secondary meaning (to sell, to read, to add, to act). And visa versa (to work, to starve, to walk, to run)

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According to the verb lexical meaning its Aspect types are:

1) Terminative (action with a limit) to come

2) non-terminative (action without a limit) to go

3) verbs of double lexical (aspect) character. (might have or lack the limit of an action depending on context) (to see, to hear, to write, to read, to translate)

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Within grammatical Category of Mood we distinguish:

    1. indicative mood

    2. imperative mood

    3. subjunctive mood.

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