Grammar Assignment (Conditional Sentences)

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Grammar Assignment (Conditional Sentences)
1.If he (not absorb) in his own thoughts, he (may take) notice of her remark.

2.If he (not show) such a blatant disregard for company regulations by smoking while on duty, he (not sack) from the job.

3.You smoke like a chimney !!! I wish I (can bring) it home to you that smoking has a detrimental effect on your health.

4.The honeymoon for the government is over, so it’s high time they (start) to tackle the country’s many problems. But for the government’s lackadaisical attitude, we (can cushion) the blow of redundancies and (stem) the tide of mass youth unemployment long ago!

5.But for the interference of the journalists, the corruption scandal (can avoid).

6.But for the appalling weather last weekend, we (can stay) in the mountains for another couple of days.

7.a)It is obvious that he is having second thoughts about the offer. If he (turn down) such a generous offer, everyone (be) absolutely flabbergasted. b)On second thought, I accepted the offer. If I (turn) it down, everyone (be) absolutely flabbergasted at my decision!

8.If the government (take) the necessary precautions in time, the death toll (not reach) such a staggering figure.

9.If she (get) wind of the situation, she definitely (be) devastated.

10.If the home team (not squander) a number of chances in the first half, they (stand) a good chance of qualifying for Euro 2016.

11.If I (speak) German, I (stand) a much better chance of getting a job.

12.If you (interview) the Prime Minister, what would you ask?

13.If I (realize) the danger that we were exposed to, I (not embark) on that precarious journey.

14.You didn’t get the job? Tough luck again! But, dear, if you (not dress) in such a bizarre fashion, you (may produce) a better impression at the interview.

15.To stay afloat, the company had to operate on a shoestring budget, which proved to have most devastating consequences. If they (not to cut) so many corners when building the bridge, it probably (collapse).

16.His attitudes strike me as verging on blatant misogyny. If he (be) shrewd enough, he (employ) the best candidates, regardless of gender.

17.The applicants complained about being judged by the apparently arbitrary standards, with the employer heavily biased in favour of male candidates. If they (start) off with a level playing field, everyone (have) an equal chance.

^ Essential Vocabulary

Finding Your Way to Knowledge

(Upstream Proficiency, Units 1,2)

many-faceted; to spoon-feed; spoon-feeding; to absorb; to be absorbed in the subject; to be grade-conscious; to plummet; to sore; to edge up/down; savvy (=shrewd, perceptive), savvier, the savviest; savvy customers; to be politically-savvy, to be techno-savvy, to be reasonably techno-savvy, media-savvy; to be well-versed in; the core; the bottom line; rotten to the core; core subjects; the core curriculum / subject / skills; the core values / beliefs; a steep learning curve; absenteeism; truancy; to play truant; to be conspicuously absent from; to cite mitigating circumstances; to re-sit an exam; to take a mock exam; to be expelled from school; to drop out of school; to pass with flying colours; to meet the entry requirements; to be entitled to; to be eligible for; intrinsically flawed; arbitrary; to be light years ahead / better than; to face a bumpy ride; to be in for a bumpy ride; to anticipate a bumpy ride; to smooth a bumpy ride; visually / hearing / mentally / physically impaired; visually / mentally / physically challenged; autism; autistic;

^ Success / Failure

to come to an abrupt end / halt; to come / grind to a halt; to bring sth to a temporary halt; abruptly; out of the blue; on the spur of the moment; at short notice; at the drop of a hat; to take sb by surprise; to crop up = arise (about problems; to get / come to grips with the problem; to tackle; a daunting / awesome / challenging / formidable / arduous / time-consuming / tough / uphill task; a mundane / routine / tedious task; to accomplish / complete the task; an uphill struggle / battle / task;

to achieve one’s goal; the ultimate goal; a daring goal; tremendous / conspicuous / spectacular / outlandish / towering success; amazing / astonishing / stunning/ overwhelming success; modest / moderate success; to achieve success; to attribute one’s success to ; to be vital to one’s success; to be / prove / appear hugely / immensely / remarkably / spectacularly / wildly successful; modestly / marginally successful; to be eventually / ultimately successful in; success does not come overnight; from humble beginnings to worldwide acclaim; from rags to riches; to fully/richly/rightly/rightfully deserve;

failure = lack of success: to end in complete / total / abject / humiliating failure; to be doomed to failure; to blame the failure on sb/sth; to attribute one’s failure to sb/sth; a possibility of / risk of failure; a failure = an unsuccessful person or thing : a complete / dismal / conspicuous / total / utter / disastrous / miserable failure; the ultimate failure; apparent failure; to feel like a complete failure; to experience / have failure; to learn from past failures; it’s not all doom and gloom; a sense of impending doom; outlandish success; to steal sb’s thunder; to land on one’s feet; a shrinking job market; shrinkage; to snowball; to have a snowball effect on; to mushroom beyond all expectations; job-wise, time-wise, dress-wise; to be on the look-out for sth; to play second fiddle to sb; to be accountable to sb; to encroach upon; lucrative; to offer lucrative opportunities; an unmitigated disaster; not to put a foot wrong; to put one’s best foot forward; to have a stroke of luck; to be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth; to exacerbate; to aggravate; to alleviate; to cushion the blow of redundancy; to juggle work and family responsibilities; to miss the boat; to squander one’s chances / opportunities; to gain a toehold; to reach a crossroads in one’s life; to be faced with an acute / appalling / big / difficult dilemma; a no-win situation; a vicious circle; in close proximity to; to beaver away at sth; an eager beaver; a jack-of-all-trades;

to bear the brunt of; to have a gruelling / tight / hectic / tight / busy schedule; to alter / juggle one’s schedule; to work to a tight schedule; to try to fit sth into one’s busy schedule; to slip behind schedule; to run ahead of schedule; to have a tight schedule to keep;

a tantalizing choice to make; a tantalizing prospect; a justifiable risk to take; to treat sb in an appalling way; a clever / smart / prudent / sensible thing to do; a horrible thing to say; to look bright / good / promising / rosy; to look bleak / grim;

to be faced with a tough choice; to be faced with Hobson’s choice; to have no choice but to do sth; to have little / no option but to do sth; one’s only option; to leave sb with little / no choice but to do sth; a range of available choices; in terms of the options available; a limited range of choices available to sb; to consider / look at the options available; easily / readily / widely available; to change a tremendous amount; to improve vastly /drastically / dramatically / tremendously; a vast / huge / marked / tremendous / tangible improvement; a marginal / modest / slight improvement; to be aimed at improving sth; a considerable / huge / overwhelming / advantage; tangible benefits; to vastly / greatly outweigh the disadvantages; to improve considerably/dramatically/vastly/ marginally/ modestly; to deteriorate steadily/sharply/severely/rapidly/further;

to the detriment of; to be detrimental to; to be a serious / severe / major handicap to one’s success; to be badly / seriously / severely handicapped by sth; self-handicapper; to impede greatly / seriously / severely / significantly; ; impediment; to hinder greatly / seriously / severely; a hindrance; to hold sb back; a plausible / valid excuse; a flimsy / lame / far-fetched excuse; to find / make up an excuse; to kid / delude oneself into believing / thinking; to sabotage; to undermine;

to be excruciatingly / painfully / astoundingly / crushingly obvious; to be ravenous for profits / revenues etc; to have a ravenous appetite for; a handsome profit; to have the Midas touch; to seek a lucrative career;


to dawdle; to procrastinate; to drag one’s heels / feet over sth; (not) to let the grass grow under one’s feet; to dillydally; to twiddle one’s thumbs; to shirk one’s responsibilities / duties / obligations; to shrink from doing sth; to lounge / laze around; to wriggle out of / worm (your way) out of / weasel (your way) out of doing sth; to be prone to procrastinate / procrastination; to be highly / extremely / notoriously prone to sth; accident-prone; sloth; to be long-overdue;

to get a glimpse of sb’s true colours; a sobering thought; to have a sobering effect on; sobriety; ostensible; ostensibly; to be utterly oblivious to; to idle one’s time away;


to frown upon; to be lukewarm about sth; lukewarm reaction / response / reception / support; to throw / pour cold water on; to pour a bucket of cold water on; to be adamant that / about sth; to be adamantly / vehemently opposed to sth; to have a wet-blanket effect on sth; self-fulfilling prophesy; mellow; to mellow out; to cope with butterflies in one’s stomach; to take things in one’s stride; fatigue-induced stress; environmental stress; survival stress; internally-generated stress; to skirt / dance around the issue; to pay lip service to sth; to resort to lip service; to make (a) sacrifice; to fall prey / victim to; to make allowances for; to undermine one’s ability/effort/confidence/position; to render sth pointless/ obsolete/impossible; to render sb speechless; to speak volumes about; to herald; much-heralded;

AGENDA: to have one’s own agenda; to have a hidden / secret agenda; to be at the top of the agenda; to be high on the agenda;

^ CHANCE / OPPORTUNITY: not to have a ghost of a chance; pure / sheer / blind chance; to stand / have a good chance of sth / doing sth; to have a sporting chance of promotion; to grab / grasp / seize / the chance; to jump at the chance / opportunity to do sht / of doing sth; to take the opportunity to do sth / of doing sth; to let sth slip through your fingers; to blow / miss / squander / waste one’s chances of doing sth; to boost / enhance one’s chances; to ruin / jeopardize one’s chances; not a snowball’s chance in hell (infml); not to have a dog’s chance; not to have a prayer of finding a job / doing sth (infml); to be denied an opportunity to do sth; a level playing field; to level the playing field; to stem the tide; to stem the tide of mass youth unemployment; to turn the tide; to swim against / with the tide; to take sth for granted; breathing space to do sth;

^ School Uniforms / PEER HARRASSMENT:

to prevent the occurrence of inferiority / superiority complexes; to curb one’s personal freedom; freedom of expression; to pin down; to impose/place/put harsh/tough/draconian restrictions on; to impose/place constraints on; to remove/lift restrictions; to avoid promiscuity; to encourage promiscuity; to be conducive to learning; to maintain a level of social equality; to exacerbate/alleviate the problem of peer harassment and bullying;

ATTIRE : to have a strict dress code; to comply with dress code; to show utter / complete / total / blatant / flagrant disregard for; flagrant disregard of the rules; to break / infringe / violate dress code; to impose constraints on; to impinge on one’s personal freedom; to flagrantly / blatantly violate sb/s rights; blatant / flagrant violation of sb’s rights; to be deprived / stripped of; to be dressed up like a dog’s dinner; to be dressed (up) to the nines; to dress immaculately / impeccably / smartly/ shabbily / improperly / inappropriately / ostentatiously / flamboyantly; to dress formally / casually; to emphasize one’s femininity; to be keen to emphasize sth; the height of fashion; to take refuge in ubiquitous jeans / chinos; to jazz sth up (infml); a medley of; a cacophony of; incongruous; inconsistent; inconspicuous; casual attire; to be in tune with one’s personality; to be at odds with; to go to ridiculous / absurd / ludicrous lengths; to follow the rules of thumb; to rely on / use one’s common sense; to be in short supply; to be completely / entirely / totally / utterly devoid of common sense; not to have an ounce of common sense; a notoriously imprecise / vague notion; to be fashion-conscious; to be fashion-impaired; the pendulum of fashion;

an ostentatious lifestyle / house ; to be remarkably free from ostentation; the ostentation and idleness of the rich; in no ostentatious way; to be risk-averse; aversion to; to keep up with the Joneses; flamboyant clothes / appearance / leadership / style / character / personality; a flamboyant businessman /tycoon; a flamboyant red dress; gaudy colour / jewelry; garish colour;


to be deeply ingrained in; prejudice / attitudes / ideas deeply ingrained / embedded in our culture; deep-seated / deep-rooted / blatant prejudice against sb; to do away with prejudices; lingering stereotypes; to be biased in favour of male candidates; to be deeply / highly prejudiced against sb; to confirm / perpetuate / reinforce stereotypes; to break / challenge / defy / dispel / reject / shatter stereotypes; to conform to / fit the stereotype; to obliterate; to perpetuate; common / national / racial / gender / sexual stereotypes; enduring legacy / myth; to be heavily / strongly / inherently biased; heavily biased against / in favour / towards; to have / display / show clear / marked / blatant bias; stigma; to carry a certain / strong / huge stigma; to stigmatize / be stigmatized; to overcome / remove / eliminate stigma attached to sth; to reduce the stigma associated with autism; the pendulum; the pendulum of public opinion; the pendulum of fashion;


ample / strong / abundant / overwhelming / compelling evidence; to embark on a precarious / hazardous journey; a precarious situation / position; to do sth in a haphazard / random / leisurely / fashion; in a bizarre fashion; in a haphazard fashion / manner / way; shambolic efforts; a shambolic approach to sth; to be given to / prone to exaggeration; it’s no exaggeration to say that …; to steer clear of;

an ostentatious display of wealth; to be appalled by; to be exasperated by; to resent; to feel resentful of; to be utterly repellent to sb; to be notoriously prone to / susceptible to sth; to strike sb as downright / utterly ridiculous; downright shocking; to have a short fuse; down-to-earth; to be inundated with calls / offers / messages; to be swamped by / with complaints / applications / calls; excruciatingly familiar; to be caught in a vicious circle; a cumbersome luxury;

to wake up and smell the coffee; to wake up to the fact; to take refuge in; unobtrusive; low-key; inconspicuous;

^ Staying engaged, open-minded, technologically savvy, and embracing continuous learning, not only individually but as a core organizational imperative, are the hallmarks of 21 century leaders.

Forbes Mar 18, 2013

Banning smoking in public and confined spaces is a long-overdue step.

Unmarried mothers, in some areas, have become the norm, no longer stigmatized by society.

Ultimately, these studies could shed light on what happens in the depressed brain and begin to erase the stigma that remains attached to mental illness.

Scientific American Nov 28, 2012

In education, the pendulum has swung back to traditional teaching methods.


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