42. Principal and secondary parts of the sentence. Subject and predicate. Types of predicate




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42. Principal and secondary parts of the sentence. Subject and predicate. Types of predicate

The members of the sentence are traditionally divided into principal (main) and secondary. The principal parts of the sentence arc the subject and the predicate.

The Subject of the sentence is the topic which is being discussed. It can be expressed by personal pronouns, indefinite pronouns, nouns, infinitives, gerunds, etc. E.g.: 1) We all make mistakes when wc are young. 2) A teacher should be patient. 3) Seeing is believing. 4) Seven is a lucky number. 5) The unknown is always interesting.

The Predicate of the sentence is what is said about the subject. Predicates are subdivided into simple (I read) and compound, which are further subdivided into compound verbal predicates (She started crying) and compound nominal predicates with link verbs (She looked beautiful).

The simple predicate denotes an action and is expressed by a finite verb in a simple or compound tense form. E.g. We study English. We have been studying English for some years already.

The compound predicate consists of two parts: a finite verb and some other part of speech.

The compound nominal predicate denotes the state or quality of the person or thing expressed by the subject {E.g. He is tired. The book is interesting.) The compound nominal predicate consists of a link verb (to be. to grow, to look, to feel, to come, to go, etc.) and a predicative (a noun, adjective, a pronoun, numeral, infinitive, gerund, etc.). Here are some examples:

  • I am a student.

  • She has^rown too proud.

  • He looks stupid.

  • She is 38.

  • Irene's hair went gray.

  • My favourite sport is swimming.

  • My first thought was to go awav.

The compound verbal modal predicate shows whether the action expressed by a non-finite form of the verb is possible, impossible, necessary, desirable, etc. E.g. You can prove everything. We can speak English well.

The compound verbal aspect predicate expresses the beginning, duration or completion of the action expressed by the non-finite form of the verb. It consists of such verbs as to begin, to start, to fall, to go on, to keep on, to continue, to stop, to give up, to finish and an infinitive or gerund. E.g. She stopped asking me about the time. We began to study English at school.

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