32. Distinguish between simple, complex and compound sentences. Comment on the structure of a compound sentence. Speak about “open” and “closed” constractions




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32. Distinguish between simple, complex and compound sentences. Comment on the structure of a compound sentence. Speak about “open” and “closed” constractions.

Sentences may be divided into simple, compound and complex.

A simple sentence includes a single subject and verb group. E.g. Last July was unusually hoi. Mary and John worked and studied together.

A simple sentence may be unextended if it consists only of the main parts of the sentence the subject and the predicate. A sentence is extended if it includes some secondary parts (the attribute, the object, the adverbial modifier).

A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences. A compound sentence unites two ideas, but it does not necessarily show the relationship between them. E g He came, he saw, he won. Man has his will, but woman has her way.

A complex sentence combines one independent clause and one or more subordinate ( dependent) clauses. An independent clause contains the more important idea. E.g. After Mary came home, Bill went to ha\>e a haircut.

^ The compound sentence is formed from two or more base sentences, joined as coordinate clauses. One of them becomes the leading clause, and the other clauses may be called sequential clauses.

Coordination, just like subordination, can be expressed either syndetically (by means of coordinative connectors) or asyndeticallv. Coordinative connectors, or coordinators, are divided into conjunctions proper, e.g.: and, but, or, for. either...or, neither... nor. etc., and semi-functional connectors of adverbial character, e.g.: nevertheless, besides, however, yet, thus, so, etc. The coordinate clauses can be combined asyndeticallv (by the zero coordinator), e.g.: The quarrel was over, the friendship was resumed.

The basic type of the compound sentence, as with the complex sentence, is a two-clause construction. If more than two or more sequential clauses arc combined with one leading clause, from the point of view of semantic correlation between the clauses, such constructions are divided into "open" and "closed".

"Open" constructions may be further expanded by additional clauses (as in various enumerations or descriptions), e.g.: They were sitting on the beach, the seagulls were flying above, the waves were rolling...

In "closed" coordinative constructions the final part is joined on an unequal basis with the previous ones and the finalization of the chain of ideas is achieved, e.g.: lie joked, he made faces, he jumped around, but the child did not smile.

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