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4.Non-finite forms of the verb/ Participle II
Non-finite forms of the verb, the infinitive, the gerund, participle I (present participle) and participle II (past participle), arc otherwise called "verbals", or "verbids". The term, introduced by O. Jespcrsen, means that they arc not verbs in the proper sense of the word, because they combine features of the verb with features of other notional parts of speech.
Absolute constructions with participles are rare in modern English and can be found mostly in literary style.
Participle II, like participle I, denotes processual quality. It has only one form, traditionally treated in practical grammar as the verbal "third form1', used to build the analytical forms of the passive and the perfect of finites, e.g.: is taken; has taken.
Like any other verbid, participle II can form semi-predicative constructions if combined with the inner subject of its own; they include complex object with participle LI, e.g.: I'd like to have my hair cut; We found the door locked; complex subject with participle II; e.g.: The door was found firmly locked; and absolute participial construction with participle II, e.g.: She approached us, head half turned; He couldn 7 walk far with his leg broken.
|The participle The participle is a non-finite form of the verb. There...||The verb has finite and non-finite forms, the latter being also called...|
|The Participle is a non-finite form of a verb, which has a verbal...||Ing to verbal stem and coincides in form with Participle I. The Gerund...|
|The right forms in these sentences. Mind that in some cases both forms are right|
Каушанская В. Л. и др. Грамматика английского языка. – М. Просвещение, 1987. – С. 47-51; С. 204-205
|47. Verbals. Participle I. Semi-predicative constructions with Participle I|
|The verb the verb is a part of speech that denotes action||Past participle|
|You can sometimes be used to replace the passive, but they are not...||49. Participle I. Absolute participial construction|