The right forms in these sentences. Mind that in some cases both forms are right

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1.3.The Adjective and the Adverb
Revise the following sources before doing the tasks given in this section:

  1. Каушанская В. Л. и др. Грамматика английского языка. – М. : Просвещение, 1987. – С. 47-51; С. 204-205.

  2. Гордон Е. М., Крылова И. П. Грамматика современного английского языка. – М. : Высш. школа, 1980. – С. 261-268; С. 305-311.

  3. Кобрина Н. А. и др. Грамматика английского языка. – М. : Просвещение, 1985. – С. 215-225; С. 269-272.

*TASK 1. Underline the right forms in these sentences. Mind that in some cases both forms are right.

  1. I bought the (last/ latest) edition of today’s paper.

  2. My house is much (father/ further) than yours along the road.

  3. Who is the (oldest/ eldest) in this class?

  4. Your driving is (worse/ worst) than mine.

  5. It's the (less/ lesser) of two evils.

  6. Have you heard the (last/ latest) news?

  7. We have no (further/ farther) information.

  8. Jane Somers, (the last/ latest) Booker Prize winner, writes (good/well).

  9. The dying man’s (latest/ last) words were: 'This is the end'.

  10. This is the town's (oldest/ eldest) house.

  11. My flat is (less/ smaller) than yours.

  12. I've got (less/ lesser) time than you.

  13. Jane is 5 years (older/ elder) than I am.

  14. This dress is the (more/ most) expensive of the two.

  15. His English is (the best/ better) of the four candidates.

  16. It's the (better/best) alternative.

  17. It's the (furthest/farthest) point west.

  18. This oak is the (oldest/eldest) tree in the park.

  19. There are five sisters in out family. Telma is my (elder/older) sister.

  20. It’s not fair! I've got the (least/less)! And you've got the (more/most)!

*TASK 2. Revision: adjectives and adverbs. Put in the right forms. Alternatives are possible.

Two men were sitting at the bar. The one ______ (near) to me was the ______ (big) and ______ (strong) man I have ever seen. The one ______ (far) from me was ______ (small/little) and ______ (weak). They were having the ______ (violent) argument I had ever heard. Suddenly the little man said. 'It's a case of the (small) ______ brain in the world fitted into the ______ (big) head!' They were his ______ (late) words. The little man didn't know what hit him as he fell to the floor. 'When Shortie wakes up, tell him that was my ______ (good) Karate chop,' the big man told the barman as he left. The next evening, King Karate was at the bar as usual when Shortie crept in quietly, swung his arm and the champ fell to the floor. 'When King Karate wakes up,' Shortie said, tell him it was my ______ (old) Land Rover starting handle.'
*TASK 3. Make up compound adjectives of measurement. Follow the example.

Example: a man who is twenty years old – a twenty-year-old man

NOTE: Don’t confuse compound adjectives of measurement with the use of possessive case in time references and money’s worth, compare:

Compound adjectives of measurement

Time references and money’s worth

  • a four-hour meeting

  • a two-day conference

  • a six-foot hole

  • a $50 dress; a $90,000 house

  • a ten-minute walk; a three-hour journey

  • a five-kilo bag of flour

  • a third-floor flat

  • a day’s work

  • an hour’s delay

  • a two months’ salary

  • today’s TV programs

  • a two days’ journey

  • twenty dollars’ worth of gasoline

  • a week or two’s time

  1. a building that is three years old

  2. a farm that has fifty acres

  3. a car whose fuel tank can contain two litres of fuel

  4. a meeting that lasts four hours

  5. a ruler which length is 30 centimetres

  6. a hole which is six metres deep

  7. a dress that costs 50 dollars

  8. a walk that lasts 10 minutes

  9. a bag that weighs 20 kilos

  10. an office-block that costs two million pounds

  11. a woman who is seventy years old

  12. a conference that lasts two days

  13. a park that is eighty hectares

  14. a journey that takes three days

  15. a baby who weighs five kilos

  16. an engine that is three litres

  17. a note for fifty pounds

  18. a fence that is twenty miles

  19. a tunnel that is fifty kilometres

  20. a bicycle that has five speeds

*TASK 4.Change the words in brackets to fill the spaces.

It's ______ (legal) to drive under the age of seventeen in Britain, but a ______ (boy of seventeen years old) managed to pass his driving test on the day of his __________ (seventeen) birthday. Most people would consider this ______ (possible) because you need a lot of lessons to pass the test. David Livesey arranged to have ______ (a lesson of eight hours) beginning at dawn on his birthday. At first he was very ______ (care) and ______ (hesitate) but he had a ______ (wonder) teacher and his driving improved ______ (amazing) during the day. By four in the afternoon, still feeling ______ (energy) he was ready to take his test and he passed first time. He was almost in a state of shock after the test and he drove home very ______ (slow) in the ______ (red) light of the ______ (set) sun. David's driving attracted the attention of two policemen, but they broke into smiles and congratulated him ______ (warm) when he showed them his certificate and told them his story.

*TASK 5. Use the correct form of the adjectives or adverbs given in brackets.

  1. They had dined (good) and were now drinking (hard), their faces getting (red) and (red).

  2. Is there anything in the world (bad) than indecision?

  3. They had never made (little) pretence of believing her than they did today.

  4. (Bad) sin towards our fellow creatures is not to hate them but to be indifferent to them.

  5. They are (wicked) people I have ever met.

  6. Life is never fair, and perhaps it is (good) thing for many of us that it is not.

  7. We were (near) smashed on the shore by the violent wind several times.

  8. James's heart beat so (fast) that he could (hard) breathe.

  9. The captain felt (uneasy) about the approaching storm with every minute.

  10. "Your voice sounds (different) on the phone.

  11. It rained (steady) for four days and nights.

  12. The karate opponents bowed (polite) to each other.

**TASK 6. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box. Alternatives are sometimes possible.
alive asleep beautiful big complete fast fresh, lovely pleased polished poor quick-drying.

shiny small young

Three and a half years ago Mr Bell received a ______ (1) present from his ______ (2) grandson. The boy had had a ______ (3) holiday by the seaside and had bought his grandfather a present. It was a ______ (4) sea-snail which had been stuck on top of an oyster and another shell. Mr Bell was very ______ (5) with his gift and put it on a shelf. While he was dusting one morning, he accidentally knocked the ______ (6) snail off the oyster. He went to find some ______ (7) glue. When he came back, he couldn't believe his eyes. The snail had moved along the shelf. It was ______ (8)! 'It must have been ______ (9) all these years and the shock woke it up.' Mr Bell said. He put the snail in a paper bag to show his friends. At first they thought the story was ______ (10) nonsense, until they saw the snail. The ______ (11) creature was so hungry, it had eaten a hole in the bag. Mr Bell gave it a ______ (12) meal of ______ (13) cabbage leaves which it really enjoyed. 'It's not such a ______ (14) story.' a scientist explained. These creatures live on the seashore and don't lead a ______ (15) life. They can hibernate for years without eating.'
***TASK 7. Translate into English paying special attention to substativised adjectives.

  1. Людство завжди мріяло про справедливе ідеальне суспільство.

  2. Ми б усі хотіли жити в такому суспільстві, де б багатії не були б занадто багаті, а бідні зовсім не були б бідними.

  3. Ми б хотіли, щоб суспільство ставилося до старих так само, як воно ставилося до них, коли вони могли працювати на нього.

  4. Сліпі мали б такі ж можливості, як і видючі, а глухі могли б розвивати свої здатності в різних царинах знань.

  5. Ми б хотіли, щоб всі безробітні знайшли роботу, здорові піклувалися про хворих, а права дітей були б захищені законом.

  6. Якби таке ідеальне суспільство існувало, ніхто б у ньому не почував депресію й розпач.

  7. На жаль, ми живемо в реальному світі, що розділений на багатії і бідних, щасливих і нещасних, ледачих і працьовитих, і нам було б неможливо змиритися з усією його несправедливістю, якби в нас не було почуття гумору.

  8. Нещодавно у вітрині похоронного агентства я побачив чудову рекламу, правда я не зрозумів чи відноситься вона до їх живих або мертвих клієнтів.

  9. Вона говорила: «Скориставшись один раз нашими похоронними послугами, ви не захочете іншого похорону!»

*TASK 8. Put in the right word order or choose the right forms. Fill in articles where necessary.

________________________________________ (shoes leather Italian expensive handmade); these are my pride and joy. I own _______________ _____________ (old beautiful pair) – or I did until yesterday, when I discovered that one of the shoes was missing. I had left the shoes on my __________ (doorstep back) to do some gardening. My neighbour has ___________________ (dog friendly large) called Sam. When I saw that one of my shoes had disappeared, I knew that Sam had taken it. I can't say he behaved _________ (bad/badly). He just behaved like a dog. Leather looks _________ (good/well) and tastes (good/ well) too. I unwillingly gave Sam the __________________________ (remaining shoe Italian) and then followed him. I not only found ____________________ (Italian unchewed my shoe) but also a pile of things Sam had been borrowing, including my ____________________ (slippers wife's fur-lined red) which Sam had tried to have for dinner!
**TASK 9. Choose the right adverb in each sentence.

  1. Farm workers have to work very hard/ hardly during the harvest. But they hard/ hardly earn enough money to pay their bills.

  2. I got off first in the race but managed to come last/ latest/ lastly.

  3. Last/lastly I'd like to thank all those who made my success possible.

  4. We've been receiving a lot of junk mail later/ lately.

  5. The postman brings my mail so late/lately I rarely see it before I go to work.

  6. I'm sure the boss thinks very high/highly of you.

  7. If you want to succeed, you should aim high/highly.

  8. I don't think you were treated very just/justly.

  9. I asked him not to go too near/nearly the edge of the platform, but he didn’t listen to me and fell oft the edge.

  10. The boss was angry because the secretary arrived late/ lately.

  11. I haven’t seen much of my best friend late/ lately.

  12. Are we flying direct/ directly or via Vienna?

  13. Mr. Stuart is direct/ directly responsible to the Managing Director.

  14. As soon as I find out all the details, I’ll tell you direct/ directly.

  15. The dancer leapt so high/ highly that the audience cried out with admiration.

  16. I am surprised that he is so high/ highly thought of.

  17. I like diving deep/ deeply.

  18. You’ve got it all wrong/ wrongly!

  19. The letter was wrong/ wrongly addressed.

  20. Let’s meet at twelve sharp/ sharply.

  21. The boy was sharp/ sharply reprimanded for being late for the class.

  22. Mr. Grant got a dead/ deadly disease in Africa.

  23. The little man hit the big man as hard/ hardly as he could.

  24. Lady Charlotte travelled wide/ widely.

  25. Don’t worry, we’ll be home short/ shortly.

  26. These animals live deep/ deeply in the Amazon forest.

**TASK 10. Change the adjectives into adverbs or adverbial phrases. Follow the rule and the example.

Rule: In Modern English some adjectives like friendly, lovely, lonely, likely, ugly, deadly, lively, cowardly, silly, etc cannot be used as adverbs. Instead adverbial phrases are used.
Example: Meg is friendly girl. – She always acts in a friendly way.

That was a quick response. She responded quickly.

  1. That was a cowardly thing to do You acted …

  2. The music was very loud. The band played far too …

  3. That was a silly thing to do You acted …

  4. The orchestra gave a lively performance. They performed …

  5. She's a stow runner. She runs …

  6. The singers gave a bad performance. They performed …

  7. She can't control her motherly feelings. Even though he's 40, she looks after him …

  8. She's a lovely teacher. She handles young children …

  9. She delivered a careful speech. She spoke …

  10. He looks pale and sickly. He always greets me …

  11. You don't have to be so unfriendly! You needn't look at me …

**TASK 11. Fill in the gaps with adjectives and adverbs from the box. Add the suffix -ly or make other changes where you need to.
beautiful best (2) careful cheap early far last

full hurried important last new past silly

quick rapid soon

_________ (1) Thursday I had a most __________ (2) interview for a job. I got up _________ (3) and dressed _________ (4). I put on my _________ (5) jacket and trousers, to look my _________ (6). I had to travel by train, so I walked to the station which isn't _________ (7) from my house. I was walking quite _________ (8) when I saw a man just ahead painting his fence with red paint. He didn't notice me as I walked _________ (9). Then he turned suddenly and splashed my _________ (10) trousers! He had acted _________ (11) and he apologized, but the damage was done. There was a big store on the corner, so I decided to buy a new pair _________ (12). I thought that could change on the train. I _________ (13) found a nice pair, which I bought quite _________ (14). The shop was _________ (15) so I paid _________ (16) grabbed my shopping-bag and left. On the train, I went to the toilet to change. I took off my stained trousers and threw them out of the window. Then I opened the bag to get my _________ (17) ones, but all I found was a pink woollen sweater!
**TASK 12. Read through the notes given below. Then do the task by uunderlining the correct word.
$ 200 $ 400 $ 750 $ 1000

a fairly quite an a rather/ a pretty a very expensive

expensive dress expensive dress expensive dress dress

  1. Fairly is the weakest of the four attributes. If you say that somebody is fairly nice or fairly pretty, it is not much of a compliment. If the film is fairly good, it may be worth seeing but not worth going a long way to see. If somebody speaks fairly good English, he/she can communicate successfully on everyday subjects but might not be able to take part in a difficult discussion.

a/an + fairly

e.g. This is a fairly good CD, but it's not the best they've made.

  1. Quite is a little stronger than fairly. If you say that the film is quite good, you are recommending it; though it is not the best film ever made, it is worth seeing. A person who speaks English quite well might even manage a difficult discussion.

quite + a/an (= enough)

e.g. This is quite a good CD, you ought to buy it.

Usually the following adjectives are used in expressions of this kind:
horrible ridiculous brilliant amazing extraordinary

useless impossible exhausted certain true

e.g. This machine is quite useless.

I'm quite certain about this.

  1. Rather and pretty are stronger than the first two attributes. They mean “more than is usual” or “more than you expected» or even “more than you want”. If you say that the film is rather good, it is better than most. A person who speaks English rather well is a good linguist. If you say that a person is rather nice, you sound a bit surprised – perhaps you didn’t expect that. If you say that it is rather hot, you may feel a bit uncomfortable. Pretty is mostly used in informal style.

a rather + noun or rather a + noun

e.g. She has rather a soft voice. = She has a rather soft voice.

I expected the book to be boring, but it was rather interesting.

rather + comparative form/too

e.g. Ted is rather more experienced than Alec.

She spends rather too much money on clothes.

a/an + pretty (= usually in everyday English)

e.g. He had a pretty nasty accident the other day.

Special notes:

  • Only rather can be used with adjectives in comparative and superlative degrees. E.g. David is rather older than his wife.

  • Only rather can be used with the particle too. E.g. He is rather too shy for his age.

  • Rather is often used in the so-called “parallel constructions”, rather … than

e.g. I’d prefer to go to the Crimea rather in August than in July. I always prefer starting early rather than leaving everything to the last minute.

  • Quite has another meaning of completely = absolutely. In this meaning it is mainly found with relative adjectives or verbs. E.g. He is quite alone. The work is quite finished. I quite forgot.

Underline the correct word.

  1. Being a nurse is a quite/ pretty stressful job.

  2. He has rather/fairly a funny name.

  3. Jane is rather/quite more athletic than Susan.

  4. She stayed out rather/fairly too late last night.

  5. That story was quite/rather true.

  6. She is quite/fairly a friendly woman.

  7. I didn't expect to enjoy the film, but it was fairly/rather brilliant.

  8. He is rather/fairly good at his job, but he sometimes makes mistakes.

  9. It was a fairly/quite interesting book, but it wasn't the best I've read.

  10. This tin opener doesn't work. It's fairly/quite useless.

  11. It was pretty/rather a long way from the station to the hotel.

  12. It was rather/pretty a waste of time watering the plants. It's raining now.

**TASK 13. Explain the difference between the pairs of adjectives given below. Write one sentence or situation to show their difference in context. Follow the example.

Example. afraid – frightened

afraid – feeling fear, frightened; used as a predicative only;

frightened – afraid, feeling fear; used both as a predicative and as an attribute.

e.g. Fred started to feel afraid/ frightened of going out alone at night.

I looked at the frightened child encouragingly. alike – similar

  1. manly – mankind

  2. skilful – skilled

  3. alone – lonely

  4. worthy – worthwhile

  5. childish – childlike

  6. confident – confidential

  7. dead – deadly

  8. drunk – drunken

  9. former – previous

  10. gold – golden

  11. graceful – gracious

  12. healthy – well

  13. imaginary – imaginative

  14. ill – sick

  15. inner – inward

  1. silk – silky – silken

  2. silver – silvery

  3. swelled – swollen

  4. sensitive – sensible

  5. outer – outward

  6. wooden – wooded

  7. worthless – unworthy

  8. lively – alive

  9. especial – special

  10. shrunk – shrunken

  11. neighbouring – neighbourhood

  12. needful – needy

  13. effective – efficient

  14. economic – economical

  15. politic – political

***TASK 14. Revision: adjectives and adverbs. Choose the right option.
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