The verb has finite and non-finite forms, the latter being also called verbals. The verbals are 3 in number: the Infinitive, the Gerund and the Participle (I, II)




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Verbals (Non-Finite Forms of the Verb)

The verb has finite and non-finite forms, the latter being also called verbals. The verbals are 3 in number: the Infinitive, the Gerund and the Participle (I, II)


The verbals combine the characteristics of a verb with some other parts of speech.

The Infinitive and the Gerund combine the characteristics of a verb and a noun

They can be used in sentences as a subject or an object, both syntactical functions being typical of the noun.

e.g. To bathe in the sea is pleasant. (subject)

He spoke of going there. (object)

The Participle combines the characteristics of a verb and an adjective (cf with дієприкметник) or a verb and an adverb (cf with дієприслівник)

e.g. The mountains were reddened by the setting sun. (attribute)

Having gathered a whole basket of mushrooms the children went home. (AM of time)

^

DIFFERENCES bw

Finite Forms

Non-Finite Forms


1. always have the subject with which they agree in person and number

e.g. I am He is


are not restricted in number and person by any grammatical subject

e.g. I hear her/them speak.

2. have mood distinctions


have no mood distinctions

3. express predication

cannot express predication, can only be the part of the predicate and must always be in connection with finite forms

e.g. To live is to hope.

I can dance.


SIMILARITIES
^

1. Like the finite forms of the verb the verbals have voice, tense and aspect distinctions:

e.g. to write – to be written (voice)


to write – to have written (tense and aspect)

What is traditionally called “tenses” of the finite forms differs greatly from the tenses of the non-finite forms. The latter comprise relative time indication. They don’t show whether the action they denote refers to the present, past or future; they indicate only whether the action expressed by the verbals is simultaneous with the action of the finite verb or prior to it:

e.g. I see you run/running. (simultaneous action)

I’m glad to have met you. (prior action)
^

2. The verbals can take a direct object (if the verb is a transitive one):


e.g. I want to read a book.

Reading good books is a pleasure.

My wife is sitting in an armchair, reading a book.

3. The verbals can be modified by adverbs:

e.g. I would like to speak English fluently.

Writing quickly tires my hands.

He came in laughing loudly.
^

The Infinitive


The Infinitive is historically a noun derived from a verb stem. In MnE the Infinitive is commonly used with the particle “to”. In most cases it is merely the sign of the Infinitive, but sometimes it has preserved its OE meaning: “in order to”, “in purpose of”:

e.g. We came here to study.(=We came here in order to study)
^

Verb Characteristics of the Infinitive


1. The Infinitive has: tense, aspect and voice distinctions:



Active

Passive

Indefinite


to write

to be written

Continuous


to be writing



Perfect


to have written

to have been written

Perfect-Continuous


to have been writing




Note: At first the Infinitive had only one form (active), which had either an active or a passive meaning. In the course of time the passive form of the Infinitive developed. Traces of the old form with the passive meaning are still found in some sentences:

e.g. ^ We are not to blame. (not: We are to be blamed) Ми не винні.
1) The Indefinite Infinitive expresses the action simultaneous with the action of the finite form of the verb:

e.g. I saw her cross the street.

  • In connection with the present tense of such verbs as to expect, to intend, to hope, to want the Indefinite Infinitive refers to an action in the future:

e.g. ^ I expect to go there tomorrow.

  • When we use the modal verbs and their equivalents the Indefinite Infinitive may also refer to a future action:

e.g. It may rain tomorrow.

2) The Continuous Infinitive denotes an action simultaneous with the action of the finite form of the verb, but this action is in progress:

e.g. They happened to be standing near us.

3) The Perfect Infinitive indicates an action prior to the action expressed by the finite form of the verb:

e.g. I’m glad to have taken your advice.

  • After the past tense of the verbs to hope, to mean, to expect, to intend the Perfect Infinitive is used to indicate that the action was not carried out:

e.g. He hoped to have come.

I meant to have written a letter.

  • The same meaning can be conveyed with the help of modal verbs should, ought, could, might and was/were in modal meaning:

e.g. He should have stayed at home.

4) The Perfect-Continuous Infinitive denotes an action, which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb:

e.g. For some days we seemed to have been living on nothing but bread.
2. The Infinitive of a transitive verb takes a direct object:

e.g. ^ I would like to drive a car.

3. The Infinitive can be modified by an adverb:

e.g. I don’t like to eat quickly.

Noun Characteristics of the Infinitive

Noun characteristics of the Infinitive are manifested in its syntactical functions. It can be used as a subject, a predicative or an object:

e.g. To skate is pleasant.

Her plan was to drive there.

I have never learned to read and write.

^

The Bare Infinitive


In MnE the Infinitive is usually used with the particle to.

e.g. I like to read.

The Infinitive is used without to in the following cases:

1. After the auxiliary verbs:

e.g. I don’t understand the meaning of this passage.

2. After the modal verbs except for ought to:

e.g. I can speak English.

3. In complex object after the verbs expressing physical (sense) perception to see, to watch, to notice, to observe, to hear, to smell, to taste, to feel:

e.g. I saw her dance. I heard them quarrel. I felt somebody touch me on the shoulder.

Note: The verb to be after the verb to feel is used with to: I felt this to be true.

4. In complex object after the verb to let:

e.g. I won’t let you say such things.

5. In complex object after the verbs to make (in the meaning of “to force”) and to have (in the meaning of “to cause”):

e.g. He made me obey him.

Note: The above mentioned verbs (items 3-5) require an Infinitive with to when they are used in the Passive Voice: She was seen to cross the street. I was made to obey him. (let = was/were allowed to)

6. After the verb to know (in the meaning of “to experience, to observe”):

e.g. Have you ever known me tell a lie?

7. After the verb to bid, though it is obsolete and should not be used in colloquial speech:

e.g. I waited thinking she would bid me take a seat.

8. After the verb to help in MnE:

e.g. Can you help me (to) carry the box?

9. After the expressions had better, had best, cannot but, nothing but, would have, would rather, would sooner, need scarcely:

e.g. You had better go home. I would rather stay here. I cannot but express my gratitude.

10. In special questions beginning with Why … ? Why not … ?

e.g. Why sit here? Why not go to the theatre?
Repetition of to Before Several Infinitives

1. When there are several Infinitives with the same or similar functions to is put only before the first Infinitive:

e.g. I want to enter this Institute and master foreign languages.

2. But sometimes if emphasis or contrast is intended, to is repeated before each Infinitive:

e.g. To be or not to be.

3. In colloquial speech to is often used without the Infinitive if the latter is clearly understood from the context.

e.g. I must go there whether I want to or not.

Split Infinitive

The particle to is sometimes separated from the infinitive by an adverb. This construction is called a split Infinitive. It is mostly used in belles-lettres style:

e.g. ^ He was unable to long keep silence.
The Functions of the Infinitive in the Sentence

The Infinitive can be used in different syntactic functions, as:

1. a subject

e.g. To live is to hope.

When the subject of the sentence is an infinitive phrase it is sometimes placed after the predicate, then the sentence begins with the pronoun it – an introductory word called the anticipator:

e.g. It’s necessary / important / impossible to do it in such a short time.

2. a predicative

e.g. To live is to hope.

3. a part of a compound verbal predicate

  • compound verbal modal predicate together with modal verbs:

e.g. You can do it without my help.

  • compound verbal aspect predicate with verbs denoting beginning, continuation or the end of some action to begin, to come on, to go on, to continue, to cease, etc:

e.g. It began to rain.

4. an object

  • to such verbs as: to want, to wish, to desire, to care, to choose, to agree, to consent, to undertake, to mean, to intend, to tend, to expect, to decide, to determine, to hope, to try, to fail, to attempt, to ask, to beg, to entreat, to manage, to order, to command, to forget, to learn, to allow, to permit, to teach, to pretend, can’t bare, can’ afford, can’t stand*, to like*, to prefer*, to begin*, to start*, to continue*, to need*, to love*, to hate*

  • to such adjectives and participles: to be able/unable, certain, sure, likely willing/unwilling, inclined/disinclined, worthy, eager, anxious, sorry, impatient, fit, pleasant/unpleasant, difficult, hard, easy, boring, pleased, usual, prepared, common, dangerous, good, ready…

e.g. ^ She had learned to dance at boarding school. Mason is anxious to see his family.

5. an attribute

e.g. He was the first to learn the news. I have no time to examine the room. I have nobody to talk to. An attributive infinitive often has the preposition, which is used in a construction where the same verb is followed by an object:

e.g. It’s not the thing to trifle with.

6. an adverbial modifier (AM)

  • of purpose, often introduced by in order and so as

e.g. I have come here to talk to you.

  • of result and consequence, especially when the demonstrative pronoun such or adverbs enough, so, too are used in the sentence:

e.g. You are clever enough to understand this. His tone was such as to allow no contradiction.

  • of comparison (manner), introduced by the conjunctions as if or as though

e.g. She moved her hand away as if to stop him.

  • of attendant circumstances

e.g. He has left never to come back.

7. a parenthesis,

e.g. to tell the truth, to put it mildly, to make a long story short, to say the least of it, etc.
Objective with the Infinitive Construction
e.g. I saw her cross the street.

The relation between the noun (or pronoun) and the infinitive is similar to that of object and predicate. In the sentence e.g. ^ I saw her cross the street two things are predicated: the first predication is “I saw” and the second – “her cross”. The two elements “her” and “cross” are closely connected and syntactically form a complex object. The latter is used:

A) with verbs expressing physical (sense) perception

to see (to notice, to watch, to observe), to hear, to smell, to taste, to feel

e.g. I heard her sing in the next room.

Note: When the verbs to see (in the meaning of “to understand”), to hear (in the meaning of “to be told, to learn”), to feel (in the meaning of “to have an opinion”) express mental perception they can not be followed by a complex object, but require an object clause:

e.g. I see that you don’t understand. I heard that you had been looking for a flat.

Note: After the verbs to see and to notice the Objective with the Infinitive Construction is not used with the verb to be: a subordinate clause is used in such cases:

e.g. I saw that she was pale.

B) with verbs expressing permission, request, order, compulsion

to allow, to permit, to let, to request, to ask, to order,

to command, to force, to cause, to make, to insist

e.g. He ordered a taxi to come at 9 o’clock. The teacher let me go home.

C) with verbs expressing wish, intension, liking and disliking

to want, to wish, to to intend, to desire, to love, to like,

to dislike, to hate, cannot bear, won’t have

e.g. I want you to be happy.

D) with verbs of mental perception

to prove, to know, to believe, to understand, to think,

to consider, to suppose, to imagine, to find, to trust

Note: After these verbs the verb to be is generally used. This does not apply, however, to the verb to expect:

e.g. I expect you to come.

Note: With the verbs to think, to consider, to find the same idea may be expressed without the infinitive:

e.g. John thought her beautiful.

E) with the verbs of declaring

to pronounce, to declare, to report

e.g. She declared him to be handsome.

Note: If the action of the finite verb and that of the Infinitive refer to the same person or thing a corresponding reflexive pronoun must be used:

e.g. ^ He declared himself to be the leader.

F) with such verbs as to wait, to rely, to listen etc followed by the prepositional object with the Infinitive

e.g. I rely on you to do it .
The complex object is rendered in Ukrainian by means of the Subordinate Objective Clause or a noun and a pronoun in dative and accusative case.

^ The Subjective Infinitive Construction
e.g. The girl was seen to run.

In the sentence above mentioned the relation between "the girl" and the Infinitive "to run" is that of secondary subject and secondary predicate, and the whole construction "the girl to run" is the complex subject to the predicate "was seen": What was seen? - The girl to run.

The complex subject is used:

  1. with verbs expressing physical (sense) perception

to see (to notice, to watch, to observe), to hear, to smell, to taste, to feel

e.g. ^ The girl was seen to leave the house.

B) with verbs expressing permission, request, order, compulsion

to allow, to permit, to let, to request, to ask, to order,

to command, to force, to cause, to make, to insist

e.g. They were requested to be ready at 8 o'clock. We were made to clean the room.

C) with verbs expressing mental perception

to know, to believe, to expect, to deny

e.g. He was known to be a capable student.

D) with verbs of saying or reporting

e.g. He is said to be a good doctor.

E) with the following pairs of synonyms

to seem/to appear, to prove/to turn out, to happen/to chance

Remember These verbs are used in the Active Voice:

e.g. She seems to know everything. I happened to hear their talk.

F) with the word groups to be likely, to be sure, to be certain

e.g. But he is sure to marry her.

Note the difference between the constructions He is sure to come. – Він обов’язково прийде.

He is sure of coming. – Він впевнений, що прийде.

With some verbs, such as to see, to hear, to order, to allow, to permit, to know a sentence with a complex subject has a corresponding active construction with the complex object.

e.g. The girl was seen to run. – I saw the girl run.

Remember that the Infinitive with the construction can't refer to a future action except with verbs and word-groups whose meaning allows it: to expect, to be sure/certain/likely

e.g. He is expected to give us the answer tomorrow.
The complex subject is rendered in Ukrainian by means of безособові речення.

^ The For-to-Infinitive Construction
In many cases the preposition for introduces a construction in which a noun in the common case or a pronoun (in the objective) has an infinitive attached to it:

e.g. It is necessary for us to go.

The relation between the noun or a pronoun and the infinitive is that of secondary subject and predicate "for us to go" means "we should go":

Compare the following examples: We are sorry to leave.

We are sorry for you to leave.

A for-phrase may be used in the sentence as:

a) a complex subject e.g. For him to realize the difference is hard.

It is often introduced by the anticipatory "it". e.g. It was strange for him to have said it.

b) a complex predicative e.g. The main thing for us is to get all the details.

c) a complex object e.g. I can't bear for us not to be friends.

d) a complex attribute e.g. Here are some books for you to read.

e) a complex AM of purpose e.g. Call me up for me not to be late.

f) a complex AM of result e.g. The problem was too difficult for the boy to solve.

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