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The Participle is a non-finite form of a verb, which has a verbal and adjectival / adverbial character. There are two Participles in English - Participle I & Participle II, traditionally called the Present Participle and Past Participle. Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb, and Participle II by adding the suffix -ed.
Adjectival / adverbial characteristics of the Participle
Adjectival/adverbial character of the Participle is manifested in its syntactic functions -those of attribute or AM:
e.g. Having guarded his car he remembered that he has not lunched. I hated the sound of the rain pattering on the roof.
Note: some participles have lost their verbality and have become adjectives:
e.g. interesting, charming, complicated, furnished
Verb Characteristics of the Participle
Participle I has tense and voice (transitive verbs only) distinctions
1. Participle I Indefinite Active & Passive expresses the action simultaneous with that of the finite form of the verb; depending on the tense form of the finite verb it may refer to the present, past and future:
When reading this book I will roar with laughter. (to the future)
2. Participle I Perfect Active & Passive indicates an action prior to that expressed by the finite form of the verb:
e.g. They were old friends having been at school together.
Note: Participle I Indefinite is commonly used instead of Participle I Perfect after some verbs of sense perception and motion, such as: to see, to hear, to come, to arrive, to cease, to look, to turn, etc.:
Participle II has no tense distinctions, it has only one form, which can express both an action simultaneous and prior to the action expressed by the finite form of the verb, the latter case is more frequent:
e.g. I was reminded of a portrait seen in the gallery.
In some cases Participle II denotes an action referring to no particular time:
Participle I of a transitive verb can take a direct object:
e.g. Opening the door, he went out to the yard.
Participle I & Participle II can be modified by an adverb:
e.g. Leaving the room hurriedly he ran out.
Predicative Constructions with the Participle
In Modern English we find the following predicative constructions with the participle:
1. the Objective Participial Construction;
2. the Subjective Participial Construction;
3. the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction;
4. the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction.
The Objective Participial Construction
The Objective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case:
e.g. ^ heavily.
Їй було чути, як на сусідньому ліжку важко дихає її мачуха.
The participle breathing is in predicate relation to the noun stepmother, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the participle.
In the Objective Participial Construction Participle I Indefinite Active or Participle II is used. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object. It usually corresponds to a subordinate object clause in Ukrainian.
The Objective Participial Construction may be found:
^ after verbs denoting sense perception, such as to see, to hear, to feel, to find, etc:
e.g. He looked round, and saw a girl racing after him.
You will probably find your sister grown, Bella.
B) after some verbs of mental activity, such as to consider, to understand, etc:
e.g. I consider myself engaged to Herr Klesmer.
C) after verbs denoting wish, such as to wish, to want, to desire. In this case only Participle II is used:
e.g. I want it done by 5 o'clock.
D) after the verbs to have and to get. After these verbs only Participle II is used.
In this case the Objective Participial Construction shows that the action expressed by the participle is performed at the request of the person denoted by the subject of the sentence. Thus I had the piano tuned means ‘I made someone tune the piano’.
Я переробила пальто (тобто, доручила комусь переробити його).
Why don't you have your hair waved?
Чому ви не завиваєте волосся?
The Subjective Participial Construction
The Subjective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle (mostly Participle I) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case, which is the subject of the sentence.
In rendering this construction in Ukrainian a complex sentence is generally used; the principal clause is of the type which in Ukrainian syntax is called indefinite personal (невизначено-особове речення).
The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate. This construction is chiefly used after verbs of sense perception:
e.g. They were heard talking together.
Було чути, як вони розмовляли.
The horse was seen descending the hill.
Було видно, як кінь спускався з гори.
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle stands in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case; the noun or pronoun is not the subject of the sentence:
e.g. The door and window of the room being open, we looked in.
Оскільки двері і вікно кімнати були відчинені, ми зазирнули в неї.
In the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction Participle I (in all its forms) or Participle II is used. This construction is generally rendered in Ukrainian by means of an adverbial clause. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier. It can be an adverbial modifier:
a) of time
e.g. This duty completed, he had three months' leave.
Коли ця робота була завершена, він отримав тримісячну відпустку.
b) of cause
e.g. It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs.
Оскільки було доволі пізно, ми взяли свічки й пішли нагору.
c) of attendant circumstances
In this function the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is mostly placed at the end of the sentence. In rendering it in Ukrainian a coordinate
clause or дієприслівниковий зворот is used:
e.g. ^ , his boots creaking at every step.
Він підвівся і тихо пройшов кімнатою; чоботи у нього рипіли при кожному кроці.
One morning he stood in front of the tank, his nose almost pressed to the glass.
Одного ранку він стояв перед вітриною, майже приліпивши носа до скла.
d) of condition
In this function the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction occurs but seldom and is almost exclusively used with the participles permitting and failing:
e.g. Weather (time, circumstances) permitting, we shall start tomorrow.
Якщо погода (час, обставини) дозволять, ми поїдемо завтра.
Conciliation failing, force remains.
Якщо не вдається досягнути примирения, доводиться застосовувати силу.
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction very often occurs in fiction and scientific literature; the use of the construction in colloquial English is rare.
The Absolute Participial Construction may be introduced by the preposition with and is then called the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction. It is in most cases used in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances.
This construction is rendered in Ukrainian by a coordinate clause or дієприслівниковий зворот:
e.g. ^ with Hugh calmly drawing at his pipe.
Вони знову йшли вперед; Хью спокійно курив свою трубку.
The daughter sat quite silent and still, with her eyes fixed on the ground.
Дочка сиділа мовчки і непорушно, опустивши очі додолу.
Absolute Constructions without a Participle
There are two types of absolute constructions in which we find no participle. The second element of the construction is an adjective, a prepositional phrase, or an adverb.
It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier. It can be an adverbial modifier:
a) of time
In this function the construction is rendered in Ukrainian by an adverbial clause:
e.g. Breakfast over; he went to his counting house.
Коли закінчили снідати,він пішов у свою контору.
b) of attendant circumstances
In this function the construction is rendered either by a coordinate clause, дієприслівниковий зворот, or a noun (pronoun) with the preposition з:
e.g. ^ his heart full of strange emotion.
Менстон подався додому один; душа його була переповнена дивними почуттями.
There he stood, his face to the south-east ... his cap in his hand.
Там він стояв, повернувши обличчя на південний схід... з шапкою в руці.
The Prepositional Absolute Construction
It is mostly used in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. In rendering this construction in Ukrainian a coordinate clause or дієприслівниковий зворот is used:
e.g. I found him ready and waiting for me, with his stick in his hand.
Він був готовий і чекав на мене; в руці у нього була палиця.
Sikes, with Oliver's hand still in his, softly approached the porch.
Сайке, все ще не випускаючи руку Олівера зі своєї, потихеньку підійшов до ганку.
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