There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book




НазваThere is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book
Сторінка1/15
Дата конвертації15.07.2013
Розмір0.76 Mb.
ТипДокументы
mir.zavantag.com > Культура > Документы
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15

PREFACE

The course of Lexicology is elaborated for the fourth and fifth years students of Pedagogical Universities, who study English as their key subject and calculated for 18 lectures and 20 seminars. It includes such aspects of work as lectures and plans of seminars which comprise the main themes of Modern English Lexicology. They are language units, wordbuilding, semantic changes, borrowings, abbreviations, semasiology, neology, phraseology. The material for seminars includes topics for discussion and argumentation. It also contains various terms and exercises which are tightly connected with the given themes. The exercises on word-structure will help students to get a better insight into the morphology and meaning of derivatives and compounds. Exercises on phraseology will provide sufficient material for the fundamental analysis of the most typical and common phraseological units in speech. They may be used at the lessons of written practise and translation. Lexical tasks for the detailed analysis are chosen mainly among all themes of the discipline.

^

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book.

The main purpose of the course is to help students to enlarge their vocabulary owing to different special terms, to teach them to recognize the origin of lexical units, to assist to guess the meaning of the words according to the context and to improve language skills.




LECTURE 1


^ NEW WORDS

Read the words with their translations and then write them down into your vocabulary. Pay attention to the spelling of difficult words.

1) term

[tE:m]

термін

^ 2) linguistics

[lIN'gwIstIks]

лінгвістика, мовознавство

3) feature

['fi:Cq]

риса, особливість

^ 4) to denote

[dI'nqVt]

вказувати, позначати

5) syntactical function

[sIn'txktIkl]

синтаксична функція

^ 6) identical constituents

[aI'dentIkl

kqn'stItjVqnts]

однакові компоненти

7) to acquire

[q'kwaIq]

набувати

^ 8) inserted

[In'sE:tId]

вставлений, вкладений

9) concept

['kPnsqpt]

значення

^ 10) an unknown

["An'nqVn]

невідома одиниця

11) to extend

[Ik'stend]

подовжувати, розширяти

^ 12) a unit of speech

['jHnIt]

одиниця мовлення

13) to perceive

[pq'sJv]

осягати, розрізнювати

^ 14) to observe

[qb'zE:v]

спостерігати, стежити

15) unity

['jHnqtI]

сполучення, з’єднання

^ 16) a transferred meaning

[trxns'fE:d]

переносне значення

17) linear

['lInIq]

подібний лінії, прямий, довгий



LECTURE 1

EXERCISE 1

Read the sentences in English. Cover the left side of the page, translate the sentences into English and write them down.


  1. The term lexicology is of Greek origin.




  1. Термін лексикологія - грецького походження.

  1. Lexicology is the part of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups.




  1. Лексикологія – це розділ лінгвістики, який розглядає питання словникового запасу та характерних особливостей слів і груп слів.

  1. The word is the smallest unit of a language which can stand alone as a complete utterance.




  1. Слово є найменшою одиницею мови, яка може існувати окремо як завершене висловлювання.

  1. The term word-group also denotes the unity of syntactical function and meaning.




  1. Термин група слів також позначає сполучення синтаксичної функції і значення.

  1. The formal unity of the word can best be illustrated by comparing a word and a word-group comprising identical constituents.




  1. Формальне сполучення слова найкраще може бути показане порівнянням слова й групи слів, включаючи однакові компоненти.

  1. The word blackbird possesses a single grammatical framing.




  1. Слово дрозд має єдину граматичну структуру.

  1. The word blackbird conveys only one concept: the type of bird.




  1. Слово дрозд передає лише одне поняття: вид птиці.

  1. The word is a unit of speech which serves the purposes of human communication.




  1. Слово є одиницею мовлення, що служить цілям людського спілкування.

LECTURE 1

LEXICOLOGY

The term Lexicology is of Greek origin (from lexis word and logos science). Lexicology is the part of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups. Lexicology, a branch of linguistics, is the study of the meaning and uses of words.

Linguistics is the study of language in general and of particular languages, their structure, grammar, history, etc.

The term vocabulary is used to denote the system of words and word-groups that the language possesses. By the vocabulary is understood the total sum of its words. Another term is the stock of words.

The term word denotes the main lexical unit of a language resulting from the association of a group of sounds with a meaning. This unit is used in grammatical functions characteristic of it. It is the smallest unit of a language which can stand alone as a complete utterance.

The term word-group denotes a group of words which exists in the language as a ready-made unit, has the unity of meaning, the unity of syntactical function.

The area of lexicology specializing in the semantic studies of the word is called semantics. Semantics is the study of the meaning of words and other parts of language.

Another structural aspect of the word is its unity. The word possesses both external (or formal) unity and semantic unity.

The formal unity of the word can best be illustrated by comparing a word and a word-group comprising identical constituents. The difference between a blackbird and a black bird is best explained by their relationship with the grammatical system of the language. The word blackbird, which is characterized by unity, possesses a single grammatical framing: blackbird/s. The first constituent black is not subject to any grammatical changes. In the word-group a black bird each constituent can acquire grammatical forms of its own: the blackest bird I’ve ever seen. Other words can be inserted between the components which is impossible so far as the word is concerned as it would violate its unity: a black night bird.

The same example may be used to illustrate what semantic unity means.

In the word-group a black bird each of the meaningful words conveys a separate concept: bird – a kind of living creature; black – colour.

Lexicology can study the development of the vocabulary, the origin of words and word-groups, their semantic relations and the development of their sound form and meaning. In this case it is called historical lexicology.

The list of unknowns could be extended, but it is probably high time to look at the brighter side and register some of the things we do know about the nature of the word.

First, we do know that the word is a unit of speech which serves the purposes of human communication. The word can be defined as a unit of communication.

Secondly, the word can be perceived as the total of the sounds which comprise it.

Third, the word possesses several characteristics.

The word is a speech unit used for the purposes of human communication, materially representing a group of sounds, possessing a meaning, susceptible to grammatical employment and characterized by formal and semantic unity.

The problem of word-building is associated with prevailing morphological word-structures and with processes of making new words. Semantics is the study of meaning. Modern approaches to this problem are characterized by two different levels of study: syntagmatic and paradigmatic.

On the syntagmatic level, the semantic structure of the word is analysed in its linear relationship with neighbouring words in connected speech.

In other words, the semantic characteristics of the word are observed, described and studied on the basis of its typical contexts.

On the paradigmatic level, the word is studied in its relationships with other words in the vocabulary system. So, a word may be studied in comparison with other words of similar meaning (e.g. work, n.-labour; to refuse, v.-to reject, v.-to decline, v.), of opposite meaning (e.g.busy, adj.-idle.adj.; to accept,v.-to reject.v.), of different stylistic characteristics (e.g.man.n.-guy,n.). Consequently, the main problems of paradigmatic studies are synonymy, antonymy functional styles.

Phraseology is the branch of lexicology specializing in word-groups which are characterized by stability of structure and transferred meaning, e.g. a dark horse is a person about whom no one knows anything.

One further important objective of lexicological studies is the study of the vocabulary of a language as a system.
Answer the following questions:

  1. What means the term Lexicology?

  2. What is understood by formal unity of a word? Why is not correct to say that a word is indivisible?

  3. Explain why the word blackboard can be considered a unity and why the combination of words a black board doesn’t possess such a unity.

  4. What is undrestood by the semantic unity of a word? Which of the following possesses semantic unity – a bluebell (дзвіночок) or a blue bell (синій бубонець)?

  5. Give a brief account of the main characteristics of a word.

  6. What are the main problems of Lexicology?



LECTURE 2

^ NEW WORDS

Read the words with their translation and then write them down into your vocabulary. Pay attention to the spelling of difficult words.

1) expressive

[Ik'spesIv]

виразний

^ 2) peculiar

[pI'kjHlIq]

своєрідний, особливий

3) circumstances

['sE:kqmstqnsIz]

обставини

^ 4) a particular case

[pq'tIkjVlq]

особливий випадок

5) an intimate letter

['IntImeIt]

особистий лист

6) court

[kO:t]

суд

^ 7) roughly

['rAflI]

приблизно, грубо

8) subdivision

['sAbdI"vIZn]

підрозділ

^ 9) one’s immediate circle

[I'mJdIqt]

найближче оточення

10) illiterate

[I'lItqrqt]

неграмотний

^ 11) occupational

["PkjV'peISnql]

["Pkjq'peIS(q)n(q)l]

професійний

12) comparatively

[kqm'pxrqtIvlI]

відносно

^ 13) inaccurate

[In'xkjqrqt]

неточний

14) statement

['steItmqnt]

заява, звіт

15) chaos

['keIPs]

хаос

^ 16) observation

["Pbzq'veIS(q)n]

спостереження

17) singularly

['sINgjVlqlI]

незвичайно

^ 18) to prevail

[prI'veIl]

переважати, превалювати

19) distinctive

[dIs'tINktIv]

своєрідний, характерний

^ 20) to incorporate

[In'kO:p(q)rqt]

містити



LECTURE 2

EXERCISE 2

Read the sentences. Cover the left side of the page, translate the sentences into English.

  1. The term functional style is a system of expressive means peculiar to a specific sphere of communication.




  1. Термін функціональний стиль це система виразних засобів, властивих певній сфері спілкування.




  1. Functional styles are classified into two groups, with further subdivisions depending on different situations.

  1. Функціональні стилі класифікуються на дві групи з подальшими підрозділами, що залежать від різних ситуацій.

  1. Dialect is a variety of language which prevails in a district, with local peculiarities of vocabulary, pronunciation and phrase.




  1. Діалект – це багатобічність мови, яка переважає в окрузі з місцевими особливостями лексикона, вимовляння і стилю.

  1. “The one stream of poetry which in constantly flowing is slang” (by G. K. Chesterton).




  1. “Єдиний напрям поезії, що в постійній великій кількості – це сленг”.

  1. Metaphor is an expression which means or describes one thing or idea using words usually used of something else with very similar qualities.




  1. Метафора – це вираз, який означає або описує один предмет чи ідею, використовуючи слова, що зазвичай вживаються в іншому значенні, але с однаковими якостями.

  1. Colloquialisms are informal words that are used in everyday conversational speech by cultivated and uneducated people of all age groups.




  1. Колоквіалізми – це неформальні слова, що використовуються в щоденному розмовному мовленні культурними й неосвіченими людьми всіх вікових груп.

  1. People use slang for a number of reasons: to be picturesque, arresting and different from others.




  1. Люди використовують сленг з багатьох причин: бути колоритними, виразними й відмінними від інших.

  1. Informal vocabulary is used in one’s immediate circle: family, relatives or friends.

  1. Неформальна лексика використовується в найближчому оточенні: сім’ї, серед родичів та друзів.

LECTURE 2
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15

Схожі:

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book icon” will take place in the Chernivtsi National University named after...

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book iconAdditional registration details

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book iconDownload free eBooks of classic literature, books and

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book iconWho am i? And how, I wonder, will this story end?

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book iconTheme Peculiarities of development of the English-speaking literature of modernism

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book iconList of the grou р

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book iconList of linguistic terms

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book iconWord list Unit 6

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book iconList of the questions on theoretical phonetics

There is also the brief list of additional literature sources in the end of the book iconPattern Name: 08766 Santa's list Designed By

Додайте кнопку на своєму сайті:
Школьные материалы


База даних захищена авторським правом © 2013
звернутися до адміністрації
mir.zavantag.com
Головна сторінка